Trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen: potent anti-tumour agents

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Received 03 Nov 2020, Accepted 23 Apr 2021, Accepted author version posted online: 24 Apr 2021

https://doi.org/10.1080/14712598.2021.1922666 

Introduction

Trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen have been used clinically in tissue repair due to their ability to resolve inflammatory symptoms. Recently, novel evidence has supported the anti-tumourigenic potential of a mixture of trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen.

Outcome measures following Sono and Photodynamic Therapy – A Case Series

Julian N. Kenyon

The Dove Clinic, Twyford, Winchester, Hampshire, SO21 1NT, England

Published on: March 30, 2021 – Journal of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis

ABSTRACT
Sono and Photodynamic Therapy (SPDT) is a novel therapeutic modality that utilises a non-toxic photosensitive agent with reported ultrasound activated properties. SPDT has previously demonstrated significant tumour cell inhibition in animal studies. There has been much research into the efficacy of photodynamic therapy and development in understanding of the underlying mechanism of tumour cytotoxicity. Synergistic ultrasound activation represents
a promising development to Photodynamic Therapy, as photo-activation is limited by access and penetrance issues. Ultrasound has been demonstrated to activate a number of sono-sensitive agents allowing the possibility of non-invasive targeted treatment of deeper tumour sites than is currently achievable with photodynamic therapy. This case series of 17 consecutive patients with a variety of cancer diagnoses outlines clinical outcomes over a four-year period
of SPDT. The results have been encouraging in that all cases who carried our Circulating Tumour Cell Tests before and after SPDT showed a significant drop in tumour cells post-SPDT. SPDT is worthy of further investigation as an effective and well tolerated treatment for a wide variety of primary and metastatic tumours, including those refractory to Chemotherapy.

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A Retrospective Outcome Study of 42 Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, 30 of Whom had Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Half were treated with oral approaches, and half were treated with Faecal Microbiome Transplantation

Abstract

The gut microbiome comprises the community of microorganisms in the intestinal tract. Research suggests that an altered microbiome may play a role in a wide range of disorders including myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS).

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Pancreatic (pro)enzymes treatment suppresses BXPC-3 pancreatic Cancer Stem Cell subpopulation and impairs tumour engrafting

Abstract

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) subpopulation within the tumour is responsible for metastasis and cancer relapse. Here we investigate in vitro and in vivo the effects of a pancreatic (pro)enzyme mixture composed of Chymotrypsinogen and Trypsinogen (PRP) on CSCs derived from a human pancreatic cell line, BxPC3. Exposure of pancreatic CSCs spheres to PRP resulted in a significant decrease of ALDEFLUOR and specific pancreatic CSC markers (CD 326, CD 44 and CxCR4) signal tested by flow cytometry, further CSCs markers expression was also analyzed by western and immunofluorescence assays. PRP also inhibits primary and secondary sphere formation. Three RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays were used to study gene expression regulation after PRP treatment and resulted in, (i) epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inhibition; (ii) CSCs related genes suppression; (iii) enhanced expression of tumour suppressor genes; (iv) downregulation of migration and metastasis genes and (v) regulation of MAP Kinase Signalling Pathway. Finally, in vivo anti-tumor xenograft studies demonstrated high anti-tumour efficacy of PRP against tumours induced by BxPC3 human pancreatic CSCs. PRP impaired engrafting of pancreatic CSC’s tumours in nude mice and displayed an antigrowth effect toward initiated xenografts. We concluded that (pro)enzymes treatment is a valuable strategy to suppress the CSC population in solid pancreatic tumours.

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Potential clinical usefulness of gut microbiome testing in a variety of clinical conditions

1. Introduction

The gut microbiome comprises the community of microorganisms in the intestinal tract. Over the last five years, interest in the gut microbiome has grown considerably driven by new techniques in DNA sequencing allowing for characterisation of gut bacteria and the recognition of the potential impact the microbiome may have on health. The large intestine has the highest number of microbial organisms, with less found in the more hostile low-pH environment of the small intestine. The large intestine is dominated by anaerobic bacteria which survive and thrive by anaerobically digesting our food .The gut microbiome has coevolved with humans to match our modern lifestyles and is beneficial for our health, supplying essential nutrients, synthetizing vitamins (i.e. vitamin K) and facilitating digestion of undigested carbohydrates. Furthermore, bacteria also help maintain the integrity of the mucosal barrier by preventing antigens and pathogens entering the gut mucosa.

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Report of Objective Clinical Responses of Cancer Patients to Pharmaceutical-grade Synthetic Cannabidiol

Abstract

Background/Aim: Cannabinoids are widely used in the management of pain, nausea and cachexia in cancer patients. However, there has been no objective clinical evidence of any anticancer activity yet. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of pharmaceutical-grade synthetic cannabidiol on a range of cancer patients. Patients and Methods: We analysed the data routinely collected, as part of our treatment program, in 119 cancer patients over a four-year period. Results: Clinical responses were seen in 92% of the 119 cases with solid tumours including a reduction in circulating tumour cells in many cases and in other cases, a reduction in tumour size, as shown by repeat scans. No side-effects of any kind were observed when using pharmaceutical grade synthetic cannabidiol. Conclusion: Pharmaceutical-grade synthetic cannabidiol is a candidate for treating breast cancer and glioma patients.

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